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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 18 / 233

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for the teachers to teach reading strategies in the English classrooms. That is, the teachers

need to teach reading strategies with the proper steps.

According to Cohen (1998), the effective reading process is divided into three

stages: (a) pre-reading, (b) while-reading, and (c) post-reading. These steps of the reading

process help students systematically practice reading strategies (Cohen, 1998).

To begin with, in pre-reading, the readers need to apply specific strategies,

including scanning and guessing, to survey the type of text they are going to read and to

recognize its difficulties. They then read the title, link it to their schemata, and predict the

content. These strategies help them create a narrow picture of the text and check whether

their prediction is right or wrong (Cohen, 1998; Mejang, 2004).

In the while-reading stage, the learners also need strategies such as self-

questioning, self-monitoring, and problem-solving (Allen, 2003; Cohen, 1998).

Therefore, students should be trained in questioning skills so that they can ask

themselves questions on the salient points of a text. For example, they can ask a question

about the main idea, the supporting details, or the conclusion. Self-monitoring is a

strategy that readers use to check their comprehension (Allen, 2003; Cohen, 1998). It is

an ongoing activity which involves two components: evaluation and regulation (Wenden,

1999). Evaluation refers to the readers’ realization of a comprehension failure and to

their assessment of comprehension progress, whereas regulation relates to the strategies

used to remedy any comprehension breakdown (Zabrucky & Ratner, 1992). Additionally,

Cohen (1998) suggests the teacher should teach the useful strategies of summarizing,

clarifying, rereading, and guessing so that the students possess a model of reading to

solve the problems while reading. These strategies help the students find solutions to

their difficulties when they are confronted with reading problems.

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