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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 19 / 233

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Finally, in the post-reading stage, readers need to evaluate the strategies they used

and the quality of their comprehension, and they need to respond to this self-evaluation

by asking themselves what they try to do, how they plan to do it, and how well they can

do it. All of these questions help them evaluate whether their course of action is effective

or not (Alderson, 2000).

However, less proficient readers with insufficient knowledge of cognitive

strategies cannot make sense of a text they have read because they fail to control or

monitor their own reading process (Baker & Brown, 1984). Proficient readers, on the

other hand, can apply appropriate cognitive reading strategies to facilitate their

comprehension. They are also aware of their own reading process through which they

apply regulatory mechanisms, the so-called metacognitive strategies proposed by Baker

and Brown (1984), to control and monitor their reading behavior, in order to facilitate

effectively the reading process (Baker & Brown, 1984). Accordingly, to achieve reading

comprehension, the readers need linguistic knowledge, the ability to understand or

comprehend a text by applying both cognitive and metacognitive strategies, and an

interactive relation between their prior knowledge and the information presented in the

text. That is, reading comprehension occurs when skilled readers balance and coordinate

many abilities in a very complex way to make comprehension proceed smoothly and

more rapidly (Grabe & Stoller, 2002).

Apparently, reading in the first language (L1) is significantly different from

reading in the second language (L2). According to the system of communication, second

languages differ from first languages in their way of creating meaning and in their writing

systems, so L2 reading, which involves two languages, is more complex than L1 reading

(Grabe & Stoller, 2002). Phakiti (2003) points out that L2 reading comprehension is

highly complex, dynamic, multi-componential, and multi-dimensional. He further argues

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