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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 20 / 233

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that L2 reading comprehension involves multiple interactions among readers.

Additionally, L2 readers perform the same functions as L1 readers, but their reading

process could be slower and less successful. Similarly, Grabe and Stoller (2002) maintain

that reading proficiency in L2 does not develop as completely or as “easily” as it

apparently does in one’s first language since many components are involved.

As reviewed earlier, the reading process is not passive, but highly interactive, and

reading comprehension does not occur automatically. Good readers are active readers

who construct meaning through the integration of prior knowledge and new knowledge,

and the use of a variety of strategies to control, regulate, and monitor their own reading

comprehension (Paris & Myers, 1981). Therefore, the development of English reading

abilities for ESL/EFL learners can be highly demanding. Besides acquiring linguistic

knowledge, the goal of reading instruction is to turn those ESL/EFL students, including

Thai students, into interactive readers, proficient readers, by developing in them a

conscious control or metacognitive awareness of their cognitive reading strategies and by

teaching them to apply these to any reading text.

Several studies investigating reading in L1 and L2 have been conducted to

improve students’ reading comprehension by teaching them metacognitive strategies and

cognitive reading strategies (Carrell, 1989; Carrell, Pharis, & Liberto, 1989; Cotteral,

1990; and Palincsar & Brown, 1984). These studies indicated that metacognitive and

reading strategies can be taught to students. Their results also showed that concentrating

on cognitive reading strategies and comprehension monitoring strategies helped students

increase their comprehension and helped less proficient readers to self-regulate or self-

monitor their reading strategies. However, little research related to the training of

metacognitive and reading strategies in Thai classrooms has been conducted, particularly

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