that L2 reading comprehension involves multiple interactions among readers.
Additionally, L2 readers perform the same functions as L1 readers, but their reading
process could be slower and less successful. Similarly, Grabe and Stoller (2002) maintain
that reading proficiency in L2 does not develop as completely or as “easily” as it
apparently does in one’s first language since many components are involved.
As reviewed earlier, the reading process is not passive, but highly interactive, and
reading comprehension does not occur automatically. Good readers are active readers
who construct meaning through the integration of prior knowledge and new knowledge,
and the use of a variety of strategies to control, regulate, and monitor their own reading
comprehension (Paris & Myers, 1981). Therefore, the development of English reading
abilities for ESL/EFL learners can be highly demanding. Besides acquiring linguistic
knowledge, the goal of reading instruction is to turn those ESL/EFL students, including
Thai students, into interactive readers, proficient readers, by developing in them a
conscious control or metacognitive awareness of their cognitive reading strategies and by
teaching them to apply these to any reading text.
Several studies investigating reading in L1 and L2 have been conducted to
improve students’ reading comprehension by teaching them metacognitive strategies and
cognitive reading strategies (Carrell, 1989; Carrell, Pharis, & Liberto, 1989; Cotteral,
1990; and Palincsar & Brown, 1984). These studies indicated that metacognitive and
reading strategies can be taught to students. Their results also showed that concentrating
on cognitive reading strategies and comprehension monitoring strategies helped students
increase their comprehension and helped less proficient readers to self-regulate or self-
monitor their reading strategies. However, little research related to the training of
metacognitive and reading strategies in Thai classrooms has been conducted, particularly