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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 21 / 233

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at high-school level. Therefore, it is beneficial to investigate the effects of metacognitive

strategy instruction on Thai students in a high-school classroom.

Reciprocal Teaching and its Theoretical Framework

The reciprocal teaching method is one of the effective approaches that teach

learners to become responsible for their reading and employ metacognitive reading

strategies over cognitive reading strategies (Cohen, 1998). Palincsar and Brown initiated

it in the early 1980s in English classrooms of native speakers. Since then, it has gained

more attention and has also been recognized as a valuable teaching method by many

researchers, reading teachers, and educators because it is a form of systematic training in

strategies that help less efficient readers improve their reading comprehension and

become independent readers (Adunyarittigun & Grant, 2005; Paris, Cross & Lipson,

1984; Duffy, 2002; Kelly, Moore & Tuck, 1994; Palincsar & Brown, 1984;

Soonthornmanee, 2002; and Speece & Hart, 1998).

Theoretically, reciprocal teaching is based on Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal

Development (1978) and the proleptic model of teaching (Wood, Bruner & Ross, 1976, as

cited in Manning & Payne, 1996). According to Vygotsky’s concept, children can

develop their learning to reach a level of actual development by independently solving

problems, and another level of potential development under adult guidance or expert

scaffolding and in collaboration with more capable peers. For language teachers, it is then

necessary to provide the learners the scaffolding or tools that include effective

intervention and language learning strategies, and then gradually remove these as the

learners use them on their own.

The goal of reciprocal teaching is to instruct students with specific strategies that

they can apply to new texts. According to Palincsar and Brown (1984), reciprocal

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