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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 22 / 233

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teaching is an instructional approach that can be best characterized by three main

features: (a) the scaffolding and explicit instruction which a teacher uses and which

include guided practice and modeling of comprehension-fostering strategies, (b) the four

main reading strategies of predicting, generating questions, clarifying, and summarizing,

and (c) social interaction which provides opportunities for learners to improve their

cognitive, metacognitive and affective strategies and offers them chances to share ideas,

increase confidence, and learn from their more capable friends. These three features help

improve the students’ ability to resolve comprehension difficulties, reach a higher level of

thinking, build metacognition, and increase motivation. As a result, students create new

knowledge from what they internalize and develop their reading potential. From these

three features, students promote their metacognitive awareness: planning before they

read, comprehension-monitoring or control of their own reading process while reading,

and self-evaluation while reading and after reading, and if their self-evaluation points to

any difficulties, effective readers fix those problems using the same process: planning,

controlling, and evaluating.

Related Research on Reciprocal Teaching

In first language (L1) classrooms, research on reciprocal teaching and its effects

on the reading abilities of different levels and groups of students has been extensively

conducted: with primary and college students (Fillenworth, 1995; Palincsar & Brown,

1986; Palincsar & David, 1990), and with students with learning disabilities (Lederer,

2000). The results of these studies showed the positive effects of reciprocal teaching on

the participants’ reading comprehension abilities.

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