2. The reading materials were selected from five reading textbooks. Both groups
of participants studied the same materials and the researcher herself instructed both
groups. In order to control threats of internal validity, the researcher used the same
reading materials, activities, length of time, environment in the classrooms, and midterm
and final examinations.
Definition of Terms
1. Reciprocal teaching refers to the reading instruction originally developed by
Palincsar and Brown (1984). It consists of four main strategies: predicting, questioning,
clarifying, and summarizing. It occurs in the form of dialogues between teachers and
students. At first, the students learn the four key strategies and practice them. Second, the
teacher models the entire process step by step using structured dialogues. Third, the
teacher gives the students a chance to get involved and coaches them on how to ask
appropriate questions, write adequate summaries, and so on. Gradually, the teacher’s role
as a leader decreases. Finally, the students take on greater responsibility to carry out the
whole process. In this study, reciprocal teaching is modeled on the same teaching
procedures as the ones found in Palincsar and Brown, as mentioned above.
2. Skill-based teaching refers to the reading instruction that focuses on reading
comprehension skills, vocabulary skills, sentence structure, finding the main idea of a
paragraph, finding the details and facts of a reading text, finding the references, drawing
inferences, and explaining the grammar and structure of a passage. Students use these
reading skills while reading with the teacher’s help (Soonthornmanee, 2002).