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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 26 / 233

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2. The reading materials were selected from five reading textbooks. Both groups

of participants studied the same materials and the researcher herself instructed both

groups. In order to control threats of internal validity, the researcher used the same

reading materials, activities, length of time, environment in the classrooms, and midterm

and final examinations.

Definition of Terms

1. Reciprocal teaching refers to the reading instruction originally developed by

Palincsar and Brown (1984). It consists of four main strategies: predicting, questioning,

clarifying, and summarizing. It occurs in the form of dialogues between teachers and

students. At first, the students learn the four key strategies and practice them. Second, the

teacher models the entire process step by step using structured dialogues. Third, the

teacher gives the students a chance to get involved and coaches them on how to ask

appropriate questions, write adequate summaries, and so on. Gradually, the teacher’s role

as a leader decreases. Finally, the students take on greater responsibility to carry out the

whole process. In this study, reciprocal teaching is modeled on the same teaching

procedures as the ones found in Palincsar and Brown, as mentioned above.

2. Skill-based teaching refers to the reading instruction that focuses on reading

comprehension skills, vocabulary skills, sentence structure, finding the main idea of a

paragraph, finding the details and facts of a reading text, finding the references, drawing

inferences, and explaining the grammar and structure of a passage. Students use these

reading skills while reading with the teacher’s help (Soonthornmanee, 2002).

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