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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 27 / 233

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3. Reading comprehension refers to the ability to understand the texts the students

read and what the writers try to convey to them. In this study, the researcher used the

reading part of the National English Entrance Examination of 2004 as both a pretest and a

posttest to assess the participants’ reading comprehension. All participants of both groups

took the reading part of the National English Entrance Examination 2004 as a pretest

before receiving the instruction and as a posttest after the instruction. The mean scores of

both tests showed whether the participants’ reading comprehension improved or not.

4. Reading comprehension strategies refers to the conscious and flexible plan that

students apply and adapt to a text when they face problems while reading. Readers use

reading comprehension strategies, both cognitive and metacognitive, to better understand

reading texts and in order to learn to read independently (Allen 2003).

5. Cognitive strategies refers to the mental processes and behaviour which

learners use to help improve their ability to learn, particularly those which they use with

specific classroom tasks and activities. These cognitive strategies include: predicting,

using background knowledge, guessing the meaning from context, summarizing, and

creating visual images, or taking notes to help them learn new information (Oxford,

  • 1990)

    .

  • 6.

    Metacognitive strategies refers to the set of reading tactics through which

learners are capable of becoming aware of their mental process. It involves thinking about

the mental operation used in the learning process, monitoring or controlling learning

while it is taking place, solving problems, and evaluating learning after it has occurred.

The metacognitive strategies the learners may use when they read include: planning the

task and content sequence; focusing on key words, phrases, and ideas; asking questions to

clarify meaning; deciding which strategy to use to solve the reading problems; checking

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