3. Reading comprehension refers to the ability to understand the texts the students
read and what the writers try to convey to them. In this study, the researcher used the
reading part of the National English Entrance Examination of 2004 as both a pretest and a
posttest to assess the participants’ reading comprehension. All participants of both groups
took the reading part of the National English Entrance Examination 2004 as a pretest
before receiving the instruction and as a posttest after the instruction. The mean scores of
both tests showed whether the participants’ reading comprehension improved or not.
4. Reading comprehension strategies refers to the conscious and flexible plan that
students apply and adapt to a text when they face problems while reading. Readers use
reading comprehension strategies, both cognitive and metacognitive, to better understand
reading texts and in order to learn to read independently (Allen 2003).
5. Cognitive strategies refers to the mental processes and behaviour which
learners use to help improve their ability to learn, particularly those which they use with
specific classroom tasks and activities. These cognitive strategies include: predicting,
using background knowledge, guessing the meaning from context, summarizing, and
creating visual images, or taking notes to help them learn new information (Oxford,
Metacognitive strategies refers to the set of reading tactics through which
learners are capable of becoming aware of their mental process. It involves thinking about
the mental operation used in the learning process, monitoring or controlling learning
while it is taking place, solving problems, and evaluating learning after it has occurred.
The metacognitive strategies the learners may use when they read include: planning the
task and content sequence; focusing on key words, phrases, and ideas; asking questions to
clarify meaning; deciding which strategy to use to solve the reading problems; checking