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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 30 / 233

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grammar, vocabulary, cohesion, and purpose. It is the readers’ responsibility to know the

differences between different texts in order to understand what the writer tries to convey

to them.

The text and the reader are two factors that are essential to the reading process.

The reader reads the text to comprehend it. Therefore, the interaction between the text and

the reader is, by itself, another vital factor in this process. Different readers may get

different meanings from the same text. These differences are due to the differences in the

readers’ background knowledge, reading ability, aptitude, personal interest, classroom

environment, and so on.

To sum up, it could be said that ESL/EFL reading is an interactive process that

involves constructing the meaning of a text. Readers interact with a text to derive the

meaning from it, relying on different reading models. Therefore, knowing these models

will help understand how readers work out the meaning from a text.

Models of the Reading Process

Reading is a cognitive process that consists of a reader, a text, and the interaction

between the reader and the text. There exist three main models for the description of the

second-language reading process: the bottom-up model, the top-down model, and the

interactive model.

The Bottom-up Model

This reading model focuses on the smaller units of a text such as its letters, words,

phrases and sentences. Then, a syntactic and semantic processing occurs during which

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