grammar, vocabulary, cohesion, and purpose. It is the readers’ responsibility to know the
differences between different texts in order to understand what the writer tries to convey
The text and the reader are two factors that are essential to the reading process.
The reader reads the text to comprehend it. Therefore, the interaction between the text and
the reader is, by itself, another vital factor in this process. Different readers may get
different meanings from the same text. These differences are due to the differences in the
readers’ background knowledge, reading ability, aptitude, personal interest, classroom
environment, and so on.
To sum up, it could be said that ESL/EFL reading is an interactive process that
involves constructing the meaning of a text. Readers interact with a text to derive the
meaning from it, relying on different reading models. Therefore, knowing these models
will help understand how readers work out the meaning from a text.
Models of the Reading Process
Reading is a cognitive process that consists of a reader, a text, and the interaction
between the reader and the text. There exist three main models for the description of the
second-language reading process: the bottom-up model, the top-down model, and the
The Bottom-up Model
This reading model focuses on the smaller units of a text such as its letters, words,
phrases and sentences. Then, a syntactic and semantic processing occurs during which