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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 32 / 233

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predicting the next group of words. They concern themselves with guessing the meaning

of the words or phrases.

Nuttall (1996) stated that readers might start predicting from the title of the

reading text, something that allows them to limit the scope of their reading. Additionally,

while reading, they may hypothesize the message the writer wants to convey and modify

their hypotheses according to what they read in the text. Comprehension begins with

higher levels of processing (making hypotheses), and proceeds to the use of the lower

levels.

The Interactive model

This model is built on the interaction of the bottom-up and top-down models.

Nunan (1990), Rumelhart (1977), and Grabe (1991) argue that efficient and effective

reading requires both top-down and bottom-up decoding. L2 readers, for example, may

use top-down reading to compensate for deficiencies in bottom-up reading. To achieve

meaning, they use their schemata to compensate for the lack of bottom-up knowledge

(Grabe, 1991).

Stanovich (1980) argued that the interactive model is a process based on

information from several sources such as orthographic, lexical, syntactic, semantic

knowledge, and schemata. While reading, decoding processes can support one another in

a compensatory way. If, when reading word by word, readers with good bottom-up skills

do not comprehend the texts, they need to use their prior knowledge (schemata) to assist

them. Alternatively, readers who rely on the top-down model use textual clues and guess

wildly at the meaning, but they need to compensate for deficits such as weaknesses in

word recognition and lack of effective bottom-up processing.

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