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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 33 / 233

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These three models of the reading process help explain how readers construct

meaning and how they compensate for their comprehension deficits. Successful readers

usually alter their model based on the need of a particular text and situation. The

interactive model, which is the combination of the bottom-up and top-down processes,

leads to the most efficient processing of texts. Knowing that the interactive model can

help L2 readers in achieving successful reading, teachers should find reading instructions

based on this model to promote L2 readers’ abilities.

The reciprocal teaching approach is a type of reading instruction that is based on

the interactive model. It covers four main reading strategies. In order to understand more

about reading strategy instruction, the aspects of language learning strategies and reading

strategies will be discussed.

Language Learning Strategies

Learning strategies are processes used by learners to help them facilitate the

acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information (Oxford, 1990). They help learners

make the learning process easier and more successful. Learning strategies for second

language learners are of two vital kinds, the cognitive and the metacognitive strategies

(Oxford, 1990). Cognitive strategies are mental processes used in learning and problem-

solving, and metacognitive strategies involve the process by which learners are aware of

cognitive and regulatory processes such as planning, setting goals, monitoring or control

learning, self-management, and self-evaluation of learning (O’Malley & Chamot, 1987;

Wenden, 1999).

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