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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 35 / 233

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Metacognitive strategy training shapes the students to become independent readers which

is the goal of reading. Therefore, in the reading classrooms, students should be trained to

use metacognitive strategies to help them comprehend texts.

Allen (2003), Cotterall (1990), and Palincsar and Brown (1984) suggest that the

reciprocal teaching approach is one of the reading instruction methods which covers both

cognitive and metacognitive strategies and helps students improve their reading

comprehension and thus become independent readers. In this approach, the teachers guide

their students towards the right strategies to be used and instruct when and how to use

them. Following this, the students will construct their own knowledge and make their

own rules while reading texts. In the end, they will be able to apply these strategies and,

from their application within cooperative groups, to perform reading tasks without any

help from others.

Metacognition and its Components

Before discussing metacognition, it is necessary to understand the cognitive and

affective states of which it is composed. The cognitive states involve knowledge of the

world, one’s own knowledge and capabilities, and knowledge of strategies. The affective

states are knowledge of emotions, motivations, and attitudes.

This being said, metacognition is explained as the higher level of mental process

that learners learn and which they use to control their thoughts or knowledge. It consists

of metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experience (Flavell, 1987).

Metacognitive knowledge relates to an awareness of one’s knowing about

cognitive states and affective states, and one’s control of this knowledge to reach a goal.

This metacognitive knowledge is declarative, procedural, and conditional (Brown, 1980).

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