Metacognitive strategy training shapes the students to become independent readers which
is the goal of reading. Therefore, in the reading classrooms, students should be trained to
use metacognitive strategies to help them comprehend texts.
Allen (2003), Cotterall (1990), and Palincsar and Brown (1984) suggest that the
reciprocal teaching approach is one of the reading instruction methods which covers both
cognitive and metacognitive strategies and helps students improve their reading
comprehension and thus become independent readers. In this approach, the teachers guide
their students towards the right strategies to be used and instruct when and how to use
them. Following this, the students will construct their own knowledge and make their
own rules while reading texts. In the end, they will be able to apply these strategies and,
from their application within cooperative groups, to perform reading tasks without any
help from others.
Metacognition and its Components
Before discussing metacognition, it is necessary to understand the cognitive and
affective states of which it is composed. The cognitive states involve knowledge of the
world, one’s own knowledge and capabilities, and knowledge of strategies. The affective
states are knowledge of emotions, motivations, and attitudes.
This being said, metacognition is explained as the higher level of mental process
that learners learn and which they use to control their thoughts or knowledge. It consists
of metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experience (Flavell, 1987).
Metacognitive knowledge relates to an awareness of one’s knowing about
cognitive states and affective states, and one’s control of this knowledge to reach a goal.
This metacognitive knowledge is declarative, procedural, and conditional (Brown, 1980).