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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 36 / 233

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Declarative knowledge involves knowledge of what one knows about cognitive stages

and activities and affective states (Brown, 1980; Flavell, 1987); procedural knowledge

refers to the way these cognitive states and activities and affective states are used; and

conditional knowledge refers to the reason and the appropriate time to apply this

knowledge and evaluate the effectiveness of the application of these kinds of knowledge.

For their part, metacognitive experiences involve the awareness of one’s own

cognitive and affective processes (Flavell, 1979). These experiences can change learners’

thought processes; they can integrate and justify their current experience with the new

metacognitive knowledge experience (Hacker, 1998).

In conclusion, metacognition includes two components, knowledge and

experiences. Metacognitive knowledge is declarative (what one knows about one’s

cognitive states and activities and one’s affective states), procedural (how to apply those

types of knowledge), and conditional (when and why to apply those types of knowledge).

Metacognitive experiences refer to the way one controls and regulates this kind of

knowledge through planning, monitoring, problem solving, and evaluating. Knowledge

and experiences that are repeatedly used and proven effective will be stored and used in

the future, whereas ineffective knowledge and experiences will be rejected.

Role of Metacognition in Reading

Metacognition is thinking applied to one’s own thinking. It appears to be the key

for thoughtful and active reading and plays an important role in reading comprehension.

Duffy (2002) states that metacognition is a core strategic behavior and leads to control

over one’s own reading. Not only do successful readers know the reading strategies, but

they monitor and control their use. That is, they know what strategies to use, when, and

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