Declarative knowledge involves knowledge of what one knows about cognitive stages
and activities and affective states (Brown, 1980; Flavell, 1987); procedural knowledge
refers to the way these cognitive states and activities and affective states are used; and
conditional knowledge refers to the reason and the appropriate time to apply this
knowledge and evaluate the effectiveness of the application of these kinds of knowledge.
For their part, metacognitive experiences involve the awareness of one’s own
cognitive and affective processes (Flavell, 1979). These experiences can change learners’
thought processes; they can integrate and justify their current experience with the new
metacognitive knowledge experience (Hacker, 1998).
In conclusion, metacognition includes two components, knowledge and
experiences. Metacognitive knowledge is declarative (what one knows about one’s
cognitive states and activities and one’s affective states), procedural (how to apply those
types of knowledge), and conditional (when and why to apply those types of knowledge).
Metacognitive experiences refer to the way one controls and regulates this kind of
knowledge through planning, monitoring, problem solving, and evaluating. Knowledge
and experiences that are repeatedly used and proven effective will be stored and used in
the future, whereas ineffective knowledge and experiences will be rejected.
Role of Metacognition in Reading
Metacognition is thinking applied to one’s own thinking. It appears to be the key
for thoughtful and active reading and plays an important role in reading comprehension.
Duffy (2002) states that metacognition is a core strategic behavior and leads to control
over one’s own reading. Not only do successful readers know the reading strategies, but
they monitor and control their use. That is, they know what strategies to use, when, and