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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 37 / 233

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why to apply them, and they adapt them to fit their purpose. Metacognitive readers plan,

monitor, evaluate, and regulate their own skills (Block, 1992; Salataci & Akyel, 2002).

There are three foundational parts to metacognition: developing a plan,

monitoring and controlling the plan, and evaluating the plan (Cohen, 1998; Pressley,

2002). Additionally, through these three fundamental parts, readers have a chance to

solve the reading problems they face. They use their background knowledge and interact

with the text in order to solve problems and learn new experiences.

Effective readers develop a plan before actually reading a text. They organize

what they have to do in a pre-reading stage, a while-reading stage and a post-reading

stage (Cohen, 1998). In pre-reading, they develop a plan, organizing all the steps of their

reading task (Billingsley & Wildman, 1988; Cohen, 1998). While they are reading, they

control those steps. Moreover, they perform a conscious reading of the texts to increase

their awareness of the problems they face and of what they need to do to solve them, such

as choosing the right reading strategies and when and how to use them. Finally, they

evaluate the effectiveness of their planning, checking, for example, whether the reading

strategies they chose solved the problems or whether they need other strategies to resolve

any misunderstanding (Cohen, 1998).

Metacognition relates to the ability to apply reading strategies to solve problems

when readers face difficulties in reading texts. Metacognition leads readers into thinking

about their learning process, supports them in their development of a plan of action, helps

them monitor their own learning in order to construct their own knowledge, and teaches

them how to evaluate their own learning process (Borokowski et al., 1990; O’Malley &

Chamot, 1990). Metacognition facilitates the readers’ improvement of their reading

ability and helps them to reach the ultimate goal which is to become independent readers

(Danuwong, 2006).

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