why to apply them, and they adapt them to fit their purpose. Metacognitive readers plan,
monitor, evaluate, and regulate their own skills (Block, 1992; Salataci & Akyel, 2002).
There are three foundational parts to metacognition: developing a plan,
monitoring and controlling the plan, and evaluating the plan (Cohen, 1998; Pressley,
2002). Additionally, through these three fundamental parts, readers have a chance to
solve the reading problems they face. They use their background knowledge and interact
with the text in order to solve problems and learn new experiences.
Effective readers develop a plan before actually reading a text. They organize
what they have to do in a pre-reading stage, a while-reading stage and a post-reading
stage (Cohen, 1998). In pre-reading, they develop a plan, organizing all the steps of their
reading task (Billingsley & Wildman, 1988; Cohen, 1998). While they are reading, they
control those steps. Moreover, they perform a conscious reading of the texts to increase
their awareness of the problems they face and of what they need to do to solve them, such
as choosing the right reading strategies and when and how to use them. Finally, they
evaluate the effectiveness of their planning, checking, for example, whether the reading
strategies they chose solved the problems or whether they need other strategies to resolve
any misunderstanding (Cohen, 1998).
Metacognition relates to the ability to apply reading strategies to solve problems
when readers face difficulties in reading texts. Metacognition leads readers into thinking
about their learning process, supports them in their development of a plan of action, helps
them monitor their own learning in order to construct their own knowledge, and teaches
them how to evaluate their own learning process (Borokowski et al., 1990; O’Malley &
Chamot, 1990). Metacognition facilitates the readers’ improvement of their reading
ability and helps them to reach the ultimate goal which is to become independent readers