The next section will focus on the reading instruction approach called reciprocal
teaching, consisting of multiple metacognitive reading strategies, which promotes
metacognition and which shows positive results in improving the English reading
comprehension of native speakers of English.
Definition of Reciprocal Teaching
Reciprocal teaching has been defined in many different ways. According to
Rosenshine and Meister (1994), reciprocal teaching is an instructional strategy that
directly teaches students to apply metacognitive thinking as they make meaning from a
Carter (1997) defined reciprocal teaching as the following:
Reciprocal teaching parallels the new definition of reading that describes the process of reading as
an interactive one, in which readers interact with the text as their prior experience is activated.
Using prior experience as a channel, readers learn new information, main ideas and arguments.
Most important, readers construct meaning from the text by relying on prior experience to parallel,
contrast or affirm what the author suggests. All excellent readers do this construction. Otherwise,
the content would be meaningless, alphabetic scribbles on the page. Without meaning
construction, learning does not take place. Reciprocal teaching is a model of constructivist
learning. (pp. 65-66)
Klingner and Vaughn (1996, p. 275) reported the following definition of
reciprocal teaching defined by Lysynchuck et al. (1990): “The reciprocal teaching model
has been used to improve comprehension for students who can decode but have difficulty
comprehending text.” Palincsar and Brown (1984) added in an article reported by Hacker
and Tenent (2002) “Reciprocal teaching is an instructional procedure in which small