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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 38 / 233

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The next section will focus on the reading instruction approach called reciprocal

teaching, consisting of multiple metacognitive reading strategies, which promotes

metacognition and which shows positive results in improving the English reading

comprehension of native speakers of English.

Reciprocal Teaching

Definition of Reciprocal Teaching

Reciprocal teaching has been defined in many different ways. According to

Rosenshine and Meister (1994), reciprocal teaching is an instructional strategy that

directly teaches students to apply metacognitive thinking as they make meaning from a

text.

Carter (1997) defined reciprocal teaching as the following:

Reciprocal teaching parallels the new definition of reading that describes the process of reading as

an interactive one, in which readers interact with the text as their prior experience is activated.

Using prior experience as a channel, readers learn new information, main ideas and arguments.

Most important, readers construct meaning from the text by relying on prior experience to parallel,

contrast or affirm what the author suggests. All excellent readers do this construction. Otherwise,

the content would be meaningless, alphabetic scribbles on the page. Without meaning

construction, learning does not take place. Reciprocal teaching is a model of constructivist

learning. (pp. 65-66)

Klingner and Vaughn (1996, p. 275) reported the following definition of

reciprocal teaching defined by Lysynchuck et al. (1990): “The reciprocal teaching model

has been used to improve comprehension for students who can decode but have difficulty

comprehending text.” Palincsar and Brown (1984) added in an article reported by Hacker

and Tenent (2002) “Reciprocal teaching is an instructional procedure in which small

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