plans such as setting a purpose to the reading, hypothesizing on what is being read, and
drawing and testing hypotheses, interpretations, and predictions; they monitor and control
their thinking process and check whether they understand; and they evaluate their own
reading process, problem solving skills, and comprehension. Reciprocal teaching builds
in the readers a metacognitive awareness of the active nature of reading, of task demands,
and of self-regulating, in order to succeed in reading comprehension.
In conclusion, reciprocal teaching is a method providing vital reading strategy
instruction that emphasizes on metacognitive awareness. Its goal is to improve readers’
reading comprehension and to facilitate their becoming independent readers. It offers
three features: scaffolding and direct instruction, practice of the four main strategies, and
social interaction. It has been influenced by Vygotsky’s developmental theory.
In order to understand the background of reciprocal teaching, its theoretical
framework will now be presented.
Reciprocal Teaching and its Theoretical Framework
The reciprocal teaching approach is a model originally developed by Annemarie
Palincsar and Ann Brown during the mid-1980s. It is one of the reading instruction
methods which cover the necessary reading strategies: predicting, generating questions,
clarifying, and summarizing. It helps students improve their reading comprehension, and
thus become better readers. The goal of reciprocal teaching is to use discussion to improve
students’ reading comprehension, develop self-regulatory and monitoring skills, and
achieve overall improvement in motivation (Allen, 2003; Borkowski et al., 1990). Its
theoretical framework is based on three sociocultural theories namely, the zone of proximal
development, proleptic teaching, and expert scaffolding (Brown & Palincsar, 1984).