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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 40 / 233

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plans such as setting a purpose to the reading, hypothesizing on what is being read, and

drawing and testing hypotheses, interpretations, and predictions; they monitor and control

their thinking process and check whether they understand; and they evaluate their own

reading process, problem solving skills, and comprehension. Reciprocal teaching builds

in the readers a metacognitive awareness of the active nature of reading, of task demands,

and of self-regulating, in order to succeed in reading comprehension.

In conclusion, reciprocal teaching is a method providing vital reading strategy

instruction that emphasizes on metacognitive awareness. Its goal is to improve readers’

reading comprehension and to facilitate their becoming independent readers. It offers

three features: scaffolding and direct instruction, practice of the four main strategies, and

social interaction. It has been influenced by Vygotsky’s developmental theory.

In order to understand the background of reciprocal teaching, its theoretical

framework will now be presented.

Reciprocal Teaching and its Theoretical Framework

The reciprocal teaching approach is a model originally developed by Annemarie

Palincsar and Ann Brown during the mid-1980s. It is one of the reading instruction

methods which cover the necessary reading strategies: predicting, generating questions,

clarifying, and summarizing. It helps students improve their reading comprehension, and

thus become better readers. The goal of reciprocal teaching is to use discussion to improve

students’ reading comprehension, develop self-regulatory and monitoring skills, and

achieve overall improvement in motivation (Allen, 2003; Borkowski et al., 1990). Its

theoretical framework is based on three sociocultural theories namely, the zone of proximal

development, proleptic teaching, and expert scaffolding (Brown & Palincsar, 1984).

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