as the teacher decreases support in order for the learners to develop independent reading
The Three Features of Reciprocal Teaching
The theory of reciprocal teaching presents three key features: scaffolding and
explicit instruction, four main strategies, and social interaction.
Scaffolding and explicit instruction.
The concept of scaffolding is grounded in Vygotsky’s social constructivist
learning. According to Vygotsky (1978), every mental function in a child’s development
first appears in collaboration with an adult or expert. This collaboration occurs in the zone
of proximal development, an area that stands between what children can do by themselves
and what they need assistance to do. With enough practice, children internalize this
collaborative form in their mental process and can work alone in new contexts. Graves &
Graves (2003), Pearson and Fielding (1991), Pressley (2002), and Rogoff (1990) have
defined scaffolding as an effective way to assist students in reaching their higher ability
by supporting their accomplishment of a task they could not complete by themselves.
Once this level of performance is reached, the teacher decreases his or her responsibility
whereas the students take more responsibility in their reading tasks until they become
fully independent readers (Malock, 2002). The teachers should provide enough support so
that the learners do not give up on the task, but at the same time they should not overly
scaffold in a way that the learners are not offered enough opportunities to work actively