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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 44 / 233

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Clark and Graves (2005) review three aspects of scaffolding and its effectiveness:

Scaffolding is flexible and supports students in their acquisition of basic skills and higher

thinking. It allows for explicit instruction, and allows teachers to teach students of diverse

needs.

Reciprocal teaching provides scaffolding through explicit instruction involving the

modeling and explanation of the four main strategies, guided practice, independent

practice, and the application of the strategies by the students themselves. Rosenshine and

Meister (1994) stated that it is easy to memorize strategies, but it is difficult to transfer or

apply independent strategic thinking. Teachers need to show their students how to do this

through explicit instruction that includes limiting tasks to make them manageable,

motivating the learners, pointing out critical features, and demonstrating solutions to

problems.

The four main strategies of reciprocal teaching.

The reciprocal teaching approach concentrates on four key reading strategies:

predicting, generating questions, clarifying, and summarizing. Each strategy is useful for

students to comprehend a reading text and can be used separately or combined according to

the situations, problems, and reading purposes the readers face (Wiseman, 1992).

Predicting

Predicting involves finding comprehensive clues by using a reader’s own

background knowledge and personal experiences. The purpose of this strategy is to link

what the reader already knows about the topic with the knowledge she or he is about to

acquire through reading. In other words, predicting keeps the readers actively thinking on

the text while reading (Duffy, 2002).

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