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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 45 / 233

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Prediction requires readers to formulate and check their hypotheses about the text.

The more readers predict what a particular text is about, the more likely they are to read it

with understanding. If the original prediction is incorrect, a new prediction can be made

and tested through reading the text.

To achieve this, readers are required to activate their prior knowledge and relate it

to the knowledge found in the text. Readers are also encouraged by the teacher to use text

structures such as the titles, the subtitles, and the illustrations (Bruce & Robinson, 2004),

all of which are clues to help predict what a text is about. Prediction is an important

strategy that helps students to set a goal before reading.

Clarifying

Clarifying is the strategy that readers use while monitoring comprehension (King

& Johnson, 1999). It occurs when the readers meet with comprehension breakdowns or

confusion and when they attempt to restore meaning, when, for example, the reference

terms are unclear and the vocabulary is difficult or unfamiliar. Readers monitor their

reading comprehension when they try to clarify what they have read (Lederer, 2002).

Clarifying enables readers to identify and question any unfamiliar, unnecessary, or

ambiguous information in the text. The questioning, discussion, and reflection that take

place both during and after reading is an opportunity for clarifying. Therefore, clarifying

is an important part of monitoring comprehension.

Questioning

Generating questions requires readers to identify information in the text they are

reading. Questions are constructed to ask about the main idea or important information.

The purpose of this strategy is to test whether the readers understand the text and to help

her or him identify important information. In addition, encouraging readers to generate

questions related to the content of a text has a positive effect on the development of their

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