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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 46 / 233

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reading comprehension (Andre & Anderson, 1979). Moreover, questioning can frame and

solve comprehension inadequacies, assisting the readers in monitoring their own

comprehension.

Rosenshine, Meister, and Chapman (1996) stated that when readers create

questions, they pay more attention to the content. This makes reading an active process

and focuses the readers’ attention on the text. When readers generate questions, they may

generate answers that they expect to be correct. If a different answer is offered by a peer,

a comprehension failure occurs, and the readers need re-thinking to find the right answer.

Rosenshine et al. (1996) also described how students need to use their text to

search for information and formulate questions in order to help them understand what

they read. This also enables them to become more involved when they are reading

(Rosenshine, Meister & Chapman, 1996). Some useful question words are who, what,

when, where, why, and how, such as in the questions “What is happening?” and “Why is

this happening?” Overall, teaching students to generate questions during the reading

process fosters comprehension and improves reading comprehension.

Summarizing

In summarizing, readers are required to identify the key idea of each paragraph. A

good summary does not include details that are not important. Readers are encouraged to

make use of headings, sub-headings, and main ideas in each paragraph to summarize the

text they are reading. The readers should think of what a paragraph or a text is mostly

about, find a topic sentence, and construct a sentence that reflects the most important

information in the paragraph. Summarizing the main idea in each paragraph of a text

helps readers not only to connect what they already know to the present piece of reading,

but also to predict what might happen in the next paragraph to check the accuracy of their

prediction (Greenway, 2002).

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