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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 48 / 233

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students to improve their cognitive, metacognitive, and affective strategies. Social

interaction improves the students’ ability to resolve comprehension difficulties, improves

their higher thinking or metacognition, and increases their motivation. Finally, students

create new knowledge from what they internalize in order to reach a higher development

of their potential (Stevens, Slavin & Farnish, 1991).

In brief, through scaffolding and explicit instruction, reciprocal teaching provides

four key reading strategies for students to comprehend a text better. These strategies

encourage students to be actively and consciously involved with a text. Moreover, the

expert-novice interaction between the teacher and the student or between peer and peer

helps the students to regulate their own rules. This gradually assists them in their

becoming independents readers. The following figure is the summary of the reciprocal

teaching theoretical framework (Malock, 2002).

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