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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 51 / 233

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work in the zone of proximal development; these components are the use of a scaffolded

and proleptic approach (transfer of learning responsibility from teacher to students

working in cooperative groups), and of the step-by-step training on the four reading

strategies (what they are, and when and how to use them).

Reciprocal Teaching in First Language (L1) Context

Primary school level.

Johnson and Catherine (1998) investigated 59 students (3rd through 5th grade) for

ten weeks. The students were assigned into three groups: a reciprocal teaching (RT)

group, a visualizing /verbalizing (V/V) group, and an untreated control group. The RT

group studied through reciprocal teaching and the four main strategies and the V/V group

studied how to create images of texts while reading. The results showed that the students

in the trained groups showed significantly better performance than the untreated control

group. The RT group answered more text questions than the V/V group. It can also be

noted that there was no significant difference between the V/V group and the RT group in

reading strategies.

King and Parent (1999) investigated the four strategies of the reciprocal teaching

approach with 5th-grade teachers who conducted reciprocal teaching in an L1 classroom.

It was found that when the teacher consistently and clearly modeled all four strategies, the

students effectively monitored their reading comprehension and gained deeper insight of

the text at hand.

Hess (2004) attempted to investigate and describe the implementation and

evaluation of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies taught in the Reading

Wings program. Five teachers of 4th- and 5th-grade classrooms at an elementary school in

Northern California, and with limited experience in the program Reading Wings were

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