work in the zone of proximal development; these components are the use of a scaffolded
and proleptic approach (transfer of learning responsibility from teacher to students
working in cooperative groups), and of the step-by-step training on the four reading
strategies (what they are, and when and how to use them).
Reciprocal Teaching in First Language (L1) Context
Primary school level.
Johnson and Catherine (1998) investigated 59 students (3rd through 5th grade) for
ten weeks. The students were assigned into three groups: a reciprocal teaching (RT)
group, a visualizing /verbalizing (V/V) group, and an untreated control group. The RT
group studied through reciprocal teaching and the four main strategies and the V/V group
studied how to create images of texts while reading. The results showed that the students
in the trained groups showed significantly better performance than the untreated control
group. The RT group answered more text questions than the V/V group. It can also be
noted that there was no significant difference between the V/V group and the RT group in
King and Parent (1999) investigated the four strategies of the reciprocal teaching
approach with 5th-grade teachers who conducted reciprocal teaching in an L1 classroom.
It was found that when the teacher consistently and clearly modeled all four strategies, the
students effectively monitored their reading comprehension and gained deeper insight of
the text at hand.
Hess (2004) attempted to investigate and describe the implementation and
evaluation of metacognitive reading comprehension strategies taught in the Reading