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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 52 / 233

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sampled from a Literacy Orientation Survey (LOS) – a survey of their beliefs and

practices in their teaching of reading. Then they were interviewed individually on reading

instruction and practices. During their reading class, they were observed instructing

students in reading comprehension using two reading strategies, clarification and

summarization. The findings revealed that all five teachers’ teaching style, beliefs, and

practices were improved. In addition, the students were also observed using

metacognitive reading strategies, particularly clarification and summarization. The results

showed that the students also improved the quality of their discussion, used more

questions at a higher critical level of thinking, and achieved higher scores on the

comprehension test.

Bruce and Robinson (2004) assessed the effectiveness of the metacognitive and

reciprocal teaching approach for improving word identification and reading

comprehension skills of upper primary readers experiencing difficulty in a regular

classroom situation. To improve word identification skills, the subjects in the main

training condition were given metacognitive training in the analysis and monitoring of

word identification strategies. Reciprocal teaching procedures, incorporating the above

word identification strategies, were used for comprehension training. The subjects were

divided into three groups. The first group received a combined metacognitive word

identification and reciprocal teaching program. The second group received traditional

classroom word identification and comprehension activities. And the third group

received reciprocal teaching of comprehension combined with traditional methods for

identifying unfamiliar words. Measures on the improvement in word identification,

metacognitive awareness of word identification strategies, and comprehension were

applied during the study, which took place over an 8-month period in a school year. The

results indicated that the combination of metacognitive word identification strategies and

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