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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 54 / 233

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High-school level.

Rosenshine and Meister (1994) conducted 19 studies that used reciprocal teaching

to help students with their reading ability. The review found that (1) when provided

before reciprocal teaching, explicit instruction in the four strategies was more effective

than when reciprocal teaching only was used; (2) the results were mostly non-significant

when all students in a group were below average, but significant when groups included

students with mixed abilities; (3) the results were usually significant when the tests were

developed by the experimenter, while usually non-significant when standardized tests

were used.

Cotterall (1990) used reciprocal teaching with adult students who were poor in

English and attending evening classes at the University of Victoria in Canada. The

participants were required to clarify what seemed to be unclear in a text, identify the main

idea and summarize what had been read, and predict the next sections of the text. It was

found that reciprocal teaching was involved with active problem solving and that this

teaching approach made learners more conscious of their reading style.

Weedman (2003) conducted a study at a high school in Kentucky, in the United

States, to examine the effects of a reading program using reciprocal teaching strategies on

the reading comprehension of 9th-grade students divided in four groups: a group who

received instruction in the four reciprocal teaching strategies, a group who received no

instruction in reciprocal teaching strategies, a group who received only the summarization

strategy, and a group who received only the generating question strategy. The four

reciprocal teaching strategies were compared with the results of the same reading

comprehension test given to a group of students who received no instruction in reciprocal

teaching. Moreover, the reading comprehension scores from the two groups of students

who received only one of the reciprocal strategies were compared with the scores from

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