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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 55 / 233

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the group who had received full strategy instruction. No significant difference was found

among any of the groups’ pretest and posttest results. However, the test scores of the

group that received instruction on all four key strategies were higher than the group that

received instruction on only one strategy.

Clark (2003) studied the efficacy of reciprocal teaching with adult high school

students on reading comprehension. Fifteen students of mixed abilities and ethnicities,

aged sixteen to fifty, participated in the 5-week study. The instruments in this study

consisted of written assignments, group discussions, and surveys of the students’ opinions

on reciprocal teaching. Group discussions and written assignments were analyzed. The

results from the surveys showed that 90% of the students reported benefits from using

reciprocal teaching and preferred it to traditional instruction; 40% of them stated that

reciprocal teaching improved their reading comprehension.

In conclusion, most studies on reciprocal teaching in first language (L1) context at

high school level also showed positive effects. The students improved their reading

ability significantly in groups of mixed abilities. In addition, students who received

explicit instruction on the four strategies before reciprocal teaching were having a better

performance than when reciprocal teaching only was used. Finally, students showed a

more positive attitude on reciprocal teaching than on traditional teaching.

University level.

Hart and Speece (1998) investigated the effects of reciprocal teaching on

postsecondary students at risk for academic failure. The sample consisted of 50 students

in a community college in Maryland, in the United States, who were divided into two

groups: an experimental group and a control group. The results showed that the reciprocal

teaching group performed significantly better than the general teaching group on reading

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