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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 56 / 233

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comprehension and strategy acquisition. However, there were no differences on

perception of study skills. In secondary analyses, poorer readers in the reciprocal teaching

group benefited more on both reading comprehension and strategy acquisition than poorer

readers in the control group.

In conclusion, the results from the studies on reciprocal teaching in L1 context

were positive for all age groups. In primary schooling, students could decode words

adequately, but comprehend text poorly. In high schools and universities, students had

problems in reading comprehension. After receiving reciprocal teaching, their scores on

reading comprehension tests were significantly better than the ones in the control group.

Additionally, the general results from these studies point to the fact that using reciprocal

teaching with the four main strategies combined with explicit instruction was the most

successful method to help students improve their reading comprehension.

Reciprocal Teaching in ESL and EFL Context

Primary school level.

Russell (1998) studied the effects of reciprocal teaching on reading and oral

language proficiency. Forty-eight 6th-grade students were randomly assigned to an

experimental and a control group, respectively 25 and 23 in each group. The experimental

group received 20 days of reciprocal teaching treatment while the control group received

traditional ESL reading instruction. Both groups used the same materials. The instruments

in this study consisted of the Language Assessment Scales (LAS) Standardized Reading

Test, the oral language proficiency (LAS - O) test, and the Self-Perception Scale (RSPS).

Each instrument was administered as pre– and posttests. This study extended the positive

effects of reciprocal teaching on reading comprehension and it was additionally found

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