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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 77 / 233

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Skill-based Teaching for Reading Comprehension

The control group was instructed to read using the skill-based approach. There are

three stages in skill-based teaching: the pre-reading stage, the while-reading stage, and the

post-reading stage. In each of them, the participants practiced using the following skills

useful in increasing their reading abilities: finding the topic, finding the main idea,

finding and inferring details and facts, drawing inferences, explaining vocabulary, and

explaining sentence structures and grammar points.

In the pre-reading stage, the teacher explained the background information related

to the text. The unknown key words and a few grammar points and structures were

explained and reviewed with the students.

In the while-reading stage, the teacher told the students to read the text on their

own. The readers were encouraged to find the main idea, to find and infer details and

facts, and to draw inferences. If they met with difficulties, the teacher assisted them in

comprehending the text by explaining the contentious points.

In the post-reading stage, the teacher asked the students to answer questions and

guided the learners into the activities or exercises accompanying the materials.

In conclusion, reciprocal teaching and skill-based teaching both have a reading

process that includes the three steps of pre-, while-, and post-reading (see Table 3.3, page

64). In addition, in both reciprocal and skill-based teaching in this study, the students

were asked to find the main idea and the important content of a passage, to clarify the

difficult words, phrases, and references, and to complete the exercises after reading.

However, the role of the teacher and the stages of reading in both groups were different.

In skill-based teaching, the teacher organized the whole reading class for the entire

semester and acted as a lecturer. On the other hand, in reciprocal teaching, the teacher

gave the students guided practice, direct modeling, and explicit instruction, and then

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