The less proficient students’ pretest and posttest mean scores collected from the
English reading part of the National English Entrance Examination 2004 were compared
using the paired t-test to determine the presence of any significant difference within the
To answer research question 3, the data were analyzed as follows:
3. The posttest mean scores of the participants in the experimental group and the
control group were calculated using the independent t-test to determine the presence of
any significant difference.
To answer research question 4, the data from the pre- and post-administration of
the RSQ was analyzed as follows:
4. The data obtained from the pre- and post-administration of the RSQ to the
experimental group were analyzed by descriptive statistics using the software SPSS for
WINDOWS to determine the mean scores and standard deviation (SD) for every
metacognitive reading strategy employed by these participants before and after instruction
through reciprocal teaching, in order to highlight any difference between the mean scores
of the students’ ratings from the pre- and post-administration of the RSQ.
The findings were to demonstrate the difference between the reading strategies the
experimental group employed prior to and after receiving instruction through reciprocal
teaching. According to Oxford (1990), the scale value and its interpretation of the
frequency of use for each reading strategy offer five levels: a) a very high level is
demonstrated by mean scores between 4.50 and 5.00, b) a high level is defined by mean
scores ranging between 3.50 and 4.49, c) a medium level is obtained by mean scores
between 2.50 and 3.49, d) a low level is defined by mean scores between 1.50 and 2.49,
and e) a very low level is characterized by mean scores between 1.00 and 1.49.