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The research conducted in 1995 has shown what soil variables are important when considering bearing capacity (stability) and what the relative magnitude of importance is of these variables. Also, we modeled bearing capacity and were able to interpret strength of the four selected sands from their angle of internal friction.

Because of the support from the Michigan Turfgrass Foundation for this research work, we were able to submit to the United States Golf Association (USGA) for research support in the continuation ofthis work looking specifically at golf putting greens. With your continued support and that of the USGA our goal of developing criteria for the selection of agronomically sound, technically stable sands and mixtures will be completed.


Adams, W .A.; Tanavud, c.; Springsguth, C. T. 1985. Factors influencing the stability of sportsturf rootzones. Proceedings of the Fifth International Turfgrass Research Conference. p.391-399. Adams, W. A.; Gibbs, R. J. 1989. The Use of Polypropylene Fibres (VHAF) for the Stabilisation of Natural

Turf on Sports Fields. Proceedings of the Sixth International Turfgrass Research Conference Japan]. Vol. 6.


AI-Hussaina, M.M., 1973. Influence of relative density on the strength and deformation of sand under plane


strain conditions. S. W. 1983. Sand

STD 523, American for soil amelioration:

Society for Testing and Analysis of the effects

Materials. of particle

pp. 332-347. size, sorting



Journal of the Sports Turf Research Institute. Vol. 59, p. 133-145. Beard, James B.; Sifers, Samuel I. 1988. New Mesh Material Enhances Sports Turf Wear. Grounds

Maintenance. Vol. 23, No.1, p. 63. Gibbs, Richard J. 1990. Maintaining surface stability on sand-based athletic fields. Grounds Maintenance.

Vol. 25, No.3, March, p. 58-64. Gibbs, R. J.; Adams, W. A.; Baker, S. W

. 1989. Factors Affecting the Surface Stability of a Sand Rootzone.

Proceedings of the Sixth International Turfgrass Research Conference [Tokyo, Japan]. Vol. 6. p. 189-191. Holubec, I. and D' Appolonia, E. 1973. Effect of particle shape on the engineering properties of granular soils. ASTM STD 523, American Society for Testing and Materials. pp. 304-318. Reid, J. B.; Goss, M. J. 1980. Changes in the aggregate stability of a sandy loam effected by growing roots of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Vol. 31, No.3, 325-328.

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