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Monitor colonies for hygienic behavior; ie., the ability to actively rid themselves of both larval and adult A. tumida.  Propagate those queen lines found to be beetle-resistant.


Experiment with trapping or cultural control measures. It may be possible to trap beetle larvae as they attempt to reach soil and pupate. Moving colonies may be advisable to keep a beetle population from building up in any particular apiary. The ability of beetles to complete development may vary according to different soil conditions and beekeepers may find some locations naturally less prone to beetle infestation. Fire ants may be a beneficial insect in this context if they are found to prey on pupating beetles.


Bees will normally not clean up equipment or supers full of beetle-fermented honey. However, bees may finish the job if the beekeeper first washes out as much honey as possible with a high-pressure water hose


Treat soil in front of affected hives with GardStar™ soil insecticide or similar approved product.


Treat colonies with CheckMite+ bee hive pest control strip according to label instructions.

American Foulbrood:

AFB is the most serious bacterial disease of honey bee brood and is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. The disease is transferred and initiated only by the spore stage of the bacterium. The reason this disease is so serious is that the spores can remain viable and last indefinitely on beekeeping equipment. It is extremely contagious and spreads easily via contaminated equipment, hive tools, and beekeepers hands. A beekeepers best way to manage AFB is to avoid it.

Normal healthy larvae are glistening white, but AFB-infected brood turn chocolate-brown and melt into a gooey mass on the floor of the cell. They may exhibit a syndrome called 'pupal tongue' where the tongue protrudes to the top of the cell. As the disease progresses, colonies may also display a pepper box symptom where the cappings are perforated and sunken into the cell. When the larvae are brown and have not formed a hardened scale, the symptom of ropiness can be demonstrated. To do this, poke a stick into this mass, macerate it and withdraw it from the cell. If AFB is present the contents will rope out up to one inch. This is the most definitive field test for AFB. As the dead larva dries, it becomes a black scale that adheres tightly to the cell floor. These scales are difficult to remove and remain a site for constant re-infection. A single scale can contain one billion spores, and it takes as few as 35 spores to trigger the disease. These scales are difficult to see and can easily be missed when purchasing used equipment. Colonies with high levels of AFB will have a foul odor similar to a chicken house. As more and more brood becomes infected and dies, the colony dwindles and eventually collapses.

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