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such as education that cut across departmental boundaries. The civil service responded by proposing a target-based management process (TMP) to achieve continuous improvement

in public services. One of the key features of TMP is for delivering results across traditional organisational

to identify and manage the process

boundaries.

Policy

secretaries

are

responsible for policy bureaux,

delivering departments

Strategic Policy and agencies.13

Objectives The overall

and co-ordinating across other objective is to focus government

accountability on results achieved for the community by raising the level of review and accountability to a focus on outcomes, leaving departmental concentrate on managing resources effectively (Efficiency Unit 1998: 12-13).

performance managers to

In his policy address of October 1998, Tung announced the Enhanced Productivity Programme (EPP), which demanded that each government department and agency produces plans and targets to achieve a 5% productivity growth by 2002, without additional resources. This appears to be a direct response to the perception of fiscal crisis as Hong Kong is buffeted by the wider economic crisis in Asia. However, his initiative seems to be more concerned with short-term quanti ied gains rather than making lasting improvements in public service delivery. Furthermore, EPP encompasses a move towards contract rather than permanent appointments in the civil service under the guise of human resource flexibility. Further changes in the human resource management of the civil service appeared with the Civil Service into the 21st Century document (Civil Service

Bureau, 1999).

Although

there is little evidence to suggest a causal link between

economic globalisation behind the document

and was

changes in the Asian

governance in financial crisis

Hong Kong, an explicit impetus

(Common,

1999).

However,

it

appears the style of governance has changed little since the transition to the South China Morning Post (1998) commented, ‘older colonial ways did not change overnight on June 30 last year’.

SAR status, as of doing things

CONCLUSIONS

employment and recruitment conditions of the civil service should be retained.

13 The first four Strategic Policy objectives announced in 1997 were ‘Better Housing for All’, ‘Care for the Elderly’, ‘Business and Industrial Development’, and ‘Quality Education’. These were set out in four booklets, 37 more were announced in 1998.

24

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