The German-born czarina Catherine the Great, who reigned from 1762 to 1796, corresponded with Voltaire and fancied herself an Enlightenment monarch; but her plans for liberal reforms came to nothing, and she became better known as vainglorious autocrat.
Despite the general backwardness of Russian society, its openness to the West (briefly interrupted by Napoleon's 1812 invasion) had profound influences on its literature throughout the 19th Century. The first great national author of Russia, Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837)--despite his celebration of Russian history and folklore--was profoundly influenced by such English writers as Shakespeare, Byron and Scott. Although he plays a role in Russian literature comparable to that of Goethe in Germany or even Shakespeare in England, his works were little known abroad during his lifetime.
It was Ivan Turgenev (1818-1883)--who lived and wrote for many years in Europe and was profoundly Western in his outlook--that first brought Russian literature to the attention of European readers, but at the cost of often being considered an alien in his own land.
It was the twin giants Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoyevsky whose work exploded out of Russia in the 1870s to overwhelm Europeans with their imaginative and emotional power. To many readers it must have seemed as if this distant, obscure country had suddenly leaped to the forefront of contemporary letters. Both were profoundly influenced both by European Romanticism and Realism, but their fiction offered characters more complex and impassioned than those Europeans were used to.
- 's is published.
- falls on its earliest possible date. The next time will fall this early: .