Global Trends in NTBs Affecting Developing Countries (with reference to a Study done for the OECD Trade Policy Working Paper by Barbara Fliess and Iza Lejarraga) (con’d)
Globally, the existing body of literature conveys a few key findings and trends pertaining to developing countries. Most analysts observe that the utilization of certain types of NTBs affecting these countries, such as quantitative restrictions, have markedly decreased in the post-Uruguay Round setting
The remaining post-Uruguay NTBs, according to the frequency ratio analysis conducted by Michalopoulos (1999) and others, appear to be more prevalent in developing than in developed-country markets, although they have decreased over time.
Michalopulos (1999) notes that frequency ratios of quantity and price control measures tend to be higher in countries with lower levels of per capita income and lower degrees of openness.