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through violence but also included the power of ideas about individuals, such as the division between health/sickness, produced through various institutions. For Foucault

(1980) this productive power is inextricably tied to the production claims, such that Foucault uses the term power/knowledge. through discourse, which is a rationalizing system based upon the

of knowledge and truth Knowledge is shaped qualification of certain

knowledge production. which have

and the disqualification of other knowledge in the process of ‘truth’ Knowledge production is intertwined with particular social institutions gained the authority to make certain claims to truth. The knowledge and

‘truth’ which is produced by these regulation of individuals. In the Birth of the Clinic (1963)

institutions result in

the disciplining of bodies and the

Foucault traced the

development of modern medical

practice, emphasizing claims about the ‘sick’

how medicine increasingly gained or ‘healthy’ body and how the base

the for

authority to make truth determining the ‘sick’ or

‘healthy’ changed through time. Foucault found that while it was not the eighteenth century, by the nineteenth century ‘health’ was increasingly tied to

of

normality.

In

Abnormal

(2004)

Foucault

traced

the

development

of

case in the the concept psychiatry,

emphasizing

how psychiatry

the ‘sick’ or

‘healthy’ mind.

also gained authority and began to make truth claims about The concept of psychiatric sickness was based heavily, as

referenced which had

by the book’s title, on the abnormal. not been previously related to health

Thus, the normal/abnormal dichotomy, or morality, became highly tied to the

diagnosis particular behavior,

of illness and to ‘curing’, or regulating, individuals to norm. Through this logic sexual ‘abnormality,’ either became a central site for medicalization.

fall in in the

line with

a

body or

in

Medicalization of Intersex The figure of the ‘hermaphrodite’ is a central example in Foucault’s exposition of the disciplining mechanisms of rationalizing apparatuses, and Foucault traces the productive element of power/knowledge in relation to ‘hermaphrodites’. Foucault documents how

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