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individuals identified as hermaphrodites were at certain points in history socially excluded or potentially put to death, and how a shift occurred in the late 17th and early 18th centuries tied to changes in knowledge. ‘Hermaphrodites’ ceased to be seen as embodying a mixture of the two sexes, and were rather labeled as ‘pseudo- hermaphrodites.’ This labeling indicated that they were not ‘true hermaphrodites’ but

had a ‘true sex’ (either male or female) that could be medically discerned

system

of

sex

categorization.

Dreger

(1998)

has

documented

within a binary the historical

medicalization of intersex practitioners searched for a

beginning in the criterion by which

mid-1800s.

In

a ‘true’ male

or

this period

medical

female sex

could be

determined

in

manifestations

of

so-called

‘pseudo-hermaphrodites’.

Dreger

also

traces

how the

criteria

criterion

proved

for determining ‘true sex’ to be inadequate. Instead

shifted through time of re-evaluating the

(Dreger two-sex

1998), as paradigm,

each new

criteria continued to be sought in attempts to ‘prove’ a ‘true sex’. The disciplining effects of this approach can most clearly be seen in how regarding intersex has, since the late 1950s throughout the global North,

medical practice followed the so-

called ‘Money Protocol’ Baltimore, U.S.A. This

based on the work of John Money at Johns Hopkins Hospital in protocol involved the use of surgery and hormones to create the

appearance of ‘normal’ male or female Largely through the critical work of

genitalia within the first eighteen months Diamond and Sigmundson (1997) the

of life. Money

Protocol is under critical that intersex conditions,

re-evaluation.2 Fausto-Sterling (2000) documented, however, particularly those involving the appearance of the genitals,

continue to be approached life-threatening.

as

medical

emergencies,

even

though

genital

appearance

is

not

2 The Money Protocol was based on a publication series from 1955 to 1957 and the ‘John/Joan’ case. Money claimed that the ‘patient’ in the ‘John/Joan’ case had been lost to follow-up. Diamond and Sigmundson found the ‘patient’ and discovered that ‘John’, who Money had attempted to make into ‘Joan’ rejected a female assignment and returned to living as male-identified. This discovery led to the critical re- evaluation of the Money Protocol but has had other problematic side effects, as Diamond and Sigmundson have used this case to re-institute a binary view of sexuality based on prenatal influences of androgens on the brain.

63

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