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April 1998, FBIS FTS19980402001018. Accord- ing to one source: “The contract with Ukraine stipulated that the buyer can’t use the carrier for military purposes, and that any equipment that could be used to build other warships [be] removed from the craft.” The extent to which this was a binding stipulation is unclear, espe- cially as the company that originally purchased Varyag from Ukraine no longer exists. More- over, whether “military purposes” includes training and experimentation is equally unclear. A close examination of the specifics of the con- tract as well as the larger legal issues of opera- tionalizing the Varyag is definitely warranted but is beyond the scope of the current work. “Aircraft Carrier Project,” GlobalSecurity.org, available at www.globalsecurity.org/military/ world/china/cv.htm.

  • 36.

    See Xian Qigong, “Chinese Navy’s First Air- craft Carrier Strike Group in Commission within Two Years,” Dowel Sinew, 1 May 2006, FBIS CPP20060512501008.

  • 37.

    Authors’ interview, Beijing, June 2006.

38. For a Chinese claim that Varyag may be used for “training,” see Wu Hongmin, “Dragon

Swims the Five Seas,” p. 20.

39. See

[Su Hongyu], “


” [Is

It an Aircraft Carrier, Or . . . ?],

[Ship Building Industry Technologi- cal & Economic Information], no. 3 (2005), pp. 50–55; and “A Vessel of Choice,” INCAT News, 22 May 2003, www.incat.com; Michael Lowe, “INCAT’s Aircraft Carrier Plans,” Examiner, 30 July 2003, available at www.examiner.com.au/ story.asp?id=188186.

  • 40.

    For evidence that the shipbuilding sector is among China’s most advanced military sectors, thanks in part to its robust civilian counterpart, see “China’s Shipbuilding Industry,” chapter 3 of Evan S. Medeiros, Roger Cliff, Keith Crane, and James C. Mulvenon, A New Direction for China’s Defense Industry (Arlington, Va.: RAND, 2005), pp. 109–54.

  • 41.

    See, for example, such periodicals as [China Shipbuilding Industry], [Technological and Economic In- formation of the Shipbuilding Industry], and [Chinese Harbors and Wharves].


,, Changjiang], “

[Li Ying, Wen Wei, and Jin

” [The Study of the Dynamic Character of Bolting and Going-Around for Carrier Air-


[Flight Dynamics] 12, no. 2

(June 1994), pp. 1–9.




[Yao Xiongliang, Qu

Zuqing, and Chen Qifu], “

” [Landing Loads of Airplane Gear on the Deck of Aircraft Carriers],

[Journal of Harbin Engi-

neering University] 18, no. 2 (April 1997), pp.

8–15; and




Xiongliang, Qu Zuqing, and Chen Qifu], “

” [The Elastoplastic Re- sponses of Flight Decks of Aircraft Carriers Sub- jected to Air Blasts], [Journal of Harbin Engineering University], no.

3 (1996), pp. 21–30.

44. For VSTOLs, Che Jun], “


[Jin Changjiang and

[Study of the Dynamic Characteristics of Ramp Ski Jump Takeoffs], [Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics] 23, no. 3 (June 1997), pp.

356–61. For takeoff issues, Dongcai and Zhou Shengming],



[Study of Technologies of Shipboard Plane

Taking Off],

[Aeronautical Sci-

ence & Technology], no. 4 (2004), pp. 25–29.

For deck motion, Yang Yidong], “


[Yu Yong and

” [Deck Motion Prediction Technique Based on Kalman Filtering Theory],

[Journal of Data Acquisition & Processing] 17, no. 4 (2002), pp. 381–84; and


[Yao Ruipu and Zhao Xiren], ” [Real-Time Predic-

tion of Aircraft Carrier Motion], [Ocean Engineering], no. 3 (1997), pp. 26–31.

For air wake,


[Peng Jing and Jin

Changjiang], “

[Research on the Numerical Simulation of Air- craft Carrier Air Wake],

[Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics

and Astronautics] 26, no. 3 (June 2000), pp.

340–43. For landing decisions,



[Yu Yong, Yang Yidong, and Dai Shijun],

” [Study on Wave-Off Decision Techniques and Real-Time Visible Simulation of Carrier-

Based Aircraft],

[Flight Dynamics] 20,

no. 2 (June 2002), pp. 31–38. For key technolo-


[Wang Qiansheng], “ ” [Critical Technologies in

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