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[Modern War- ship Spectacle Book Series, vol. 5] (Beijing: World Knowledge Press, 1995), p. 160; and

[Lin Changsheng], “


” [The Hidden Dragon

in the Deep: The Present Situation and Devel-

opment of PLA Mine Weaponry], [World Outlook], no. 9 (May 2005), p. 32.

83. Taiwan military spokesman Liu Chih-chien is quoted as stating that the Varyag will be “used as a training ship in preparation for building an aircraft carrier battle group”; David Lague, “An Aircraft Carrier for China?” International Her- ald Tribune, 31 January 2006.

84. For ballistic missiles,

[Weapons for Attack of Aircraft Carriers],

[Modern Navy] (October 2004);



[Gu Xianfeng, Qian Jianping,

and Ma Yuanliang], “

” [Preliminary Research on the Guidance Pattern and Tech- nique Framework of Long-Range Accurate At-

tack Torpedo Weapons],


Science & Technology], March 2003;



[Cui Xusheng, Guan Guoshu

and Zhou Deshan], “

” [Draw Useful Lessons from History and Strengthen R&D of Torpedoes in the New Century],

[Ship Science & Technology] (March 2003); [Li Guangpu], “ ” [An Analysis of American Aircraft Carriers Past and Present and the Problems They Have Faced], [Winged Missiles Journal] (March 2002);



[Zhang Guohua, Yuan

Naichang, and Zhuang Zhaowen], “

” [Calculation of the Radar Cross Section of an Aircraft Carrier Based on the Plate-Element Method],

[Journal of the National Univer- sity of Defense Technology] 23, no. 5 (2001),

pp. 79–83; and “

  • --

    ” [Mari-

time Hegemon: The Aircraft Carrier], Science Initiation (March 1996). For cruise missiles,




[Wang Jianfei,

Wu Wenjun, Peng Xiaolong, and Xiong Ping], “”

[Analysis on Effectiveness of the Air-Attack Firepower of a U.S. Carrier Fighting Group],

[Intelligence, Command, Control, and Simulation Technol- ogy] 27, no. 1 (February 2005), pp. 24–30; and



[He Wentao and Wu Jiawu], ” [A Study on

Countering Aircraft Carrier Battle Groups],

[Modern Defense Technology] 32, no. 5 (October 2004), pp. 18–20, 29. For subma- rines, [Qin Hang, Lin Hua, and Zhou Feng], “

” [Analysis of Some Technical Factors That Affect the Com- bat Characteristics of a Group of Submarines],

[Journal of the Naval Engi-

neering Academy] 89, no. 4 (1999), pp. 60–63.

For torpedoes,





Min, Liu Xiaoliang, Pang Yanli, and Shi Yong],

“” [The Present Situation and Development of Long-Range Homing Technology on Anti– Aircraft Carrier Torpedoes], [Ship Science & Technology] 27, no. 1 (2005),

pp. 17–20; and




Xianfeng, Qian Jianping, and Ma Yuanliang],

” [Preliminary Research on Guidance Patterns and Technique Framework of Long- Range Accurate Attack Torpedo Weapons],

[Ship Science & Technology] 25,

no. 3 (2003), pp. 7–11. For sea mines,


[Liu Yanzhong and Li Xiang], “ ” [Carrying Out Intelligent At-

tacks with Modern Sea Mines], [Modern Navy], July 2006, p. 29; Jiao Fangjin,

” [The Double-Headed

Eagle’s Ambush at Sea],

[Defense Sci-

ence] (July 2003), p. 91; Wang Wei, “

” [Enduring and Yet Fully Relevant: A

Discussion of Sea Mines],

[National De-

fense] (November 2002), p. 58; Fu Jinzhu,

[Mine Warfare Must Not Be Ig-


[Modern Ships], no. 156

(November 1998), p. 1.



[Yi Heng and Xin Hua], “ ” [Six Trump Cards to


Cope with Aircraft Carriers],


Outlook], no. 3 (February 2001), pp. 60–61.

86. For a Chinese account of the influence of

Khrushchev’s “

” [aircraft car-

rier coffin theory], see Wu Hongmin, “Dragon

S w i m s t h e F i v e S e a s , p . 1 7 .

87. Liu Huaqing, Memoirs of Liu Huaqing, p. 478. In a March 1987 report to the PLA General Staff, Admiral Liu offered possible clarification of what he meant by “escort carriers”: “Our analy- sis shows that, without developing aircraft


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