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involvement as a correlate of diminished alienation (Zeffane, 1993). The measure used here sums public manager’s responses on a Likert-type question ((from 1=Strongly Disagree to 7=Strongly Agree) to the following statements:

The most important things I do are involved with my job. I enjoy my work more than anything else I do. The major satisfaction in my life comes from my job.

These measures have a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.76, indicating acceptable scale consistency and reliability.

Two aspects of organization control are examined, centralization and formalization. Centralization is defined as an upward locus of decisionmaking power in the organization (Aiken & Hage, 1968; Hall, 1963). Aiken & Hage and measure of centralization is used (1968), consisting of a scale generated by summing ratings of levels of agreement (from 1=Strongly Disagree to 7=Strongly Agree) to the following statements:

There can be little action taken here until a supervisor approves a decision.

In general, a person who wants to make his own decisions would be quickly discouraged in this agency.

Even small matters have to be referred to someone higher up for a final answer.

The scale has acceptable reliability, as measured by a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.77.

Formalization is defined as the extent of written rules, regulations and procedures (Pugh, 1966). Higher levels of formalization are meant to limit discretion and minimize variance in outputs (). This study borrows a NASP-I measure of formalization (1992) based on a survey question about the extent of organizational recordkeeping (Bozeman, 2000; Pandey & Scott, 2002):

Please assess the extent of record keeping in your organization… with 0 signifying few records kept and 10 signifying a great many records kept).

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