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Technology routineness, defined as the level of variety in an organization’s work tasks, is included as an indirect form of organizational control. This research uses a scale adopted from (Aiken & Hage, 1968) for technology routineness that sums public managers Likert-type responses to the following statements (from 1=Strongly Disagree to 7=Strongly Agree).

People here do the same job in the same way every day.

One thing people like around here is the variety of work. (Scale Reversed)

Most jobs have something new happening everyday. (Scale Reversed)

The Chronbach’s alpha coefficient for the scale is 0.62.

Red tape is defined as ineffective internal rules or procedures that adversely affect organizational performance. Two measures of red tape are examined. As used in NASP-I (Bozeman, 2000; Pandey & Scott, 2002), organizational red tape is measured by survey responses to the following question

If red tape is defined as burdensome administrative rules and procedures that have negative effects on the organization’s performance, please assess the level of red tape in your organization: (Please enter a number between 0 and 10, with 0 signifying no red tape and 10 signifying the highest level of red tape)

The second red tape measure pertains to human resource procedures. Personnel rules have been identified a highly distinguishable dimension of red tape (Bozeman, Reed and Scott, 1992) and an important source of red tape in the public sector (Rainey, Pandey and Bozeman, 1995). The role of public personnel rules as a pronounced source of red tape may be attributable to the great care taken to promote merit principals and affirmative action (Baldwin, 1990). Human resource red tape is measured as the sum of public managers’ Likert-type responses (from 1=Strongly Disagree to 7=Strongly Agree) to the following questionnaire items (Pandey & Scott, 2002; Rainey, 1983):

Even if a manager is a poor performer; formal rules make it hard to remove him or her from the organizations.

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