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moderate influence and that personnel red tape has a relatively stronger influence than technology routineness (-0.19 and –0.16).

Discussion We began by hypothesizing that various forms of organization control would be associated with higher workplace alienation. The results yield mixed evidence for this expectation (Table VII). As hypothesized, centralization and technology routineness are associated with higher alienation in most of the models generated. However, the results fail to support the hypothesized relationship between formalization and alienation. Formalization appears to be a mitigating, not exacerbating, influence on alienation. This result is consistent with studies suggesting that formalization reduces role conflict and thus serves as a connecting influence between employer and employee ().

We also hypothesized the perceptions of red tape – defined as burdensome procedures that impair organizational performance -- would be associated with higher managerial alienation. The results support this expectation (Table VII). Perceived personnel red tape is a consistently negative and statistically significant influence in all models of alienation indicators. Perceived organizational red tape is statistically significant and negative in all but the job involvement model, in which it is an insignificant influence. These results also contradict the notion that public managers are impervious to the psychological effects of ineffective procedure because it is commonplace in their public sector context ().

While not a formally tested hypothesis, the results provide information on the relative “importance” of red tape’s relationship to alienation. A comparison of standardized regression coefficients of statistically significant model variables reveals centralization to be a consistently stronger alienation influence than red tape (Table VII). Thus, public managers appear to be more alienated by limitations on professional autonomy than ineffective procedure.

One final observation: the second set of models using personnel red tape explain more variance than the first set of models using organizational red tape in their explanatory variables. This pattern could be due to greater construct validity associated

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