with the personnel red tape measures, which are more specific with regards to the sources and impacts of ineffective procedure.
For several reasons, interpretation of these results should proceed with caution. First, the use of public managers focusing on information technology reduces the external validity of the study. Future research should seek to expand the types of employees and the nature of agencies. Second, the research has focused on organizational structure to the exclusion of individual characteristics that may influence workplace alienation. This is a deliberate exclusion for conceptual clarity, but may be driving the low levels of explanatory variance in our regression modeling.2 A third limitation is that the study may have mistaken the direction of causality between alienation, organization control and red tape. Scholars have argued recently the tendency of more alienated individuals to perceive higher organizational control and red tape (Kingsley and Pandey, 2000; Bozeman and Rainey, 1998; Anderson, 1971). Because regression analysis does not determine the direction of causality, future research should apply more sophisticated modeling approaches to estimate directionality. Future research should also seek to estimate the exact psychological path from perceived organization control and perceived red tape to alienation (). A final limitation of this study is its reliance of subjective measures of organization control, red tape and alienation. While subjective measures better tap the psychological and personal effects of organization control than do more objective measures (Bozeman and Scott 96), they nonetheless have limited construct validity (Scott, 2002).
Conclusions So, what are the implications of our results for public management? Whether we like it or not, perceptions of red tape, allegedly manufactured or imposed by public organizations and public managers, inevitably galvanize politicians, everyday citizens and media critics about a need for reforms. The fact that public managers are subject to a multitude of rules and regulations that tie their hands in different ways is often overlooked. Yet for public management to be responsive and effective it must continue
2 As Berk notes, one should not expect to explain significant amounts of variance when focusing on a single aspect of a social phenomenon (2003).