whose expectations of autonomy and participation contradict notions of bureaucratic control (Greene, 1978, Miller, 1967).
Extensive empirical evidence supports the notion that centralized decisionmaking, one form of organization control, alienates workers (Blauner, 1964; Zeffane, 1994; Miller, 1967; Aiken and Hage, 1966) . Industries characterized by low levels of worker discretion (auto, textiles, manufacturing) have been shown to experience higher worker alienation than those featuring higher levels of worker discretion (Blauner, 1964). Scientists and engineers in less controlled private-sector research and development laboratories have been shown to be less alienated than those in higher controlled laboratories, where control is defined as supervisory style, research choice, professional climate, company encouragement of autonomy (Miller 67). Centralization has been also linked to higher alienation in a study of public and private welfare agencies (Aiken and Hage, 1966) and public sector telecommunication workers (Zeffane, 1993). These results lead us to expect that:
H1: Public managers in more centralized organizations will experience higher alienation than those in less centralized organizations.
Specifically, reduced workplace autonomy is expected to increase feelings of powerlessness and reduce feelings of work’s inherent meaningfulness, key ingredients in alienation (Seeman, 1954).
Formalization, defined as an emphasis on written rules, regulations, and procedures, has also been the focus of alienation studies. High levels of formalization imply that superiors proscribe work routines rather than allow workers to decide how things are done (Agarwal, 1993). Such proscription, in turn, is expected to aggravate feelings of powerlessness and work’s meaninglessness. Formalization has linked to higher alienation among engineers (Greene, 1978), welfare agency workers (Aiken and Hage, 1966), and public sector telecommunications employees (Zeffane, 1994). Accordingly, we expect that: