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achievement (Baldwin, 1990). These negative impacts, in turn, may trigger feelings of powerlessness and meaninglessness. However, red tape may also induce feelings of normlessness, which are not a logical consequence of centralization, formalization, or technology routineness. This dimension of alienation involves the expectation that socially unapproved behaviors are required to achieve required goals. Specifically the requirement to comply with red tape may lead public managers to feel obligated to participate in procedure that consumes tax dollars but produces no societal benefit. This leads to the expectation that:

H4: Higher organizational red tape will lead to higher alienation among public managers.

One counterargument to the hypothesis is that red tape could be a phenomenon to which public managers have become accustom and increasingly equipped to deal with (Ban, 1995; Lewis, 1980; Riccucci, 1995). In particular, public managers may have an inherent or developed toleration for red tape that is buttressed by larger motivational forces, such as the stimulation of managerial work and the need to achieve broader societal goals. The study asserting this toleration found that perceived red tape did not alter a willingness to work hard among public or private sector managers, the explanation for which may relate to managerial understandings of the tradeoffs between accountability and efficiency inherent in red tape (Baldwin, 1990).

The Data The data for this project were collected during Phase II of the National Administrative Studies Project (NASP II). The sampling frame comprised managers working in information management activities at the state level in health and human service agencies. Primary health and human service agencies were identified according to the definition used by American Public Human Services Association (APHSA) and include agencies housing programs related to Medicaid, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), and child welfare. Information management was broadly defined to include a range of key managerial roles such as the top program administrator, managers of information system applications, managers in charge of evaluation and research, and

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