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of the second mailing, concomitantly with the mailing we faxed the cover letter that went with the second mailing to the non respondents clearly indicating that the letter and a replacement survey were in the mail. The final step in survey administration took place about two months later when non respondents were sent a new cover letter and a second replacement survey with a request to complete the survey. This final mailing pointed out that this was the last opportunity for the respondents to complete the survey questionnaire and used a combination of two-day delivery by an express carrier and United States Postal Service Priority Mail.

Based on information cumulated during this period, the size of the sampling frame was reduced from 570 to 518. It should be noted that APHSA directory is the best available source of information on the sampling frame. Despite the best efforts by APHSA directory to provide current and up to date information, the information in the directory at publication time is a year old. The survey was administered several months after the publication of the directory. This was reflected in the principal reason for deletion from the sampling frame: managers having left the organization before the survey administration efforts commenced. Other reasons for deletion from the sampling frame were retirement and death. By the time survey administration concluded in winter of 2003, a total of 274 responses were received. Thus, the response rate for the study was 53%.

Measures Alienation is measured using levels of organization commitment, job satisfaction and job involvement reported by NASP-II survey participants. These measures fall under the umbrella of constructs that fall within the general motivation literature (Rainey, 1992 22). Organization control is measured by three attributes: the degree of centralization, formalization, and technology routineness. Two types of red tape perceptions are measured: (1) perceived personnel red tape and (2) perceived organizational red tape.

Organization commitment has been linked to lower alienation in several studies (Podsakoff, et al, 86; Morrow 83; Rabinowitz and Hall 81; Michaels 88). This study’s organization commitment measure (Meyer, Allen & Smith, 1993) reflects the perceived obligation to remain with one’s employer. The measure used is a scale constructed by

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