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summing survey responses to the following questionnaire items (with Likert-type alternatives ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree):

This organization deserves my loyalty.

I would not leave my organization right now because I have a sense of obligation to the people in it.

I owe a great deal to my organization.

It would be very hard for me to leave my organization right now, even if I wanted to.

The Cronbach’s alpha of average inter-item correlation for these items indicates an acceptable 0.80.

Researchers have correlated job satisfaction with work alienation, (Arches, 1991; Rousseau, 1978), measured alienation using job satisfaction, (Aiken and Hage, 1966; Allen and LaFallette, 1977; Zeffane, 1993; Miller, 1967; Hackman and Oldman, 1975, 1976, 1980); and generated evidence of convergent validity between job satisfaction and alienation constructs (Lefkowitz and Brigando, 1980). In this study, job satisfaction is measured as a scale of summed Likert-type responses (from 1=Strongly Disagree to 7=Strongly Agree) to the following questions (Cammann, Fichman, Jenkins & Klesh, 1979; Seashore, Lawler, Mirvis & Cammann, 1982; Cook, Hepworth, Wall & Warr, 1981):

In general, I like working here. In general, I don’t like my job. (Scale Reversed) All in all, I am satisfied with my job.

These measures have a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.87, indicating acceptable scale reliability.

The job involvement scale used by this study taps the extent to which one’s job is a central force in one’s life (Davis, 1966; Dubin, 1956; Lodahl & Kejner, 1965; Saleh and Hosek, 1976). Studies have employed job involvement to capture the self-estrangement component of alienation, which relates to the lack of inherent meaning in work (Lefkowtiz and Brigando, 1980; Miller, 1967). Scholars have also established job

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