X hits on this document

53 views

0 shares

0 downloads

0 comments

10 / 16

and room contents (see above) with the statistical estimates of the number of accidental fires in each case.

Results

All figures given in the graphs are per million sofas, over the whole sofa lifetime, using the 10 year lifetime model (divide by 10 to obtain emissions /millions sofas/year). Results from the other scenarios (including the 15 year life cycle) are presented in the full report. In the scenario presented here 30% of end-of-life sofas are assumed to go to incineration, a small portion are included in fires, and the remainder to landfill. The base graphs assume that energy recovery is not installed in incineration plants, the potential from energy recovery is shown as a negative column and in the “total” indicated.

For each of energy consumption, CO2 emissions and NOx, the main contribution through the furniture’s life cycle (including accidental fires) comes from energy use in the manufacturing stage. Differences between FR and non-FR furniture are small, and come from the energy used in manufacturing the flame retardants. The results for CO2 are given in the figure below.

kg/million sofas

1.00E+08

8.00E+07 6.00E+07

4.00E+07 2.00E+07

0.00E+00

  • -

    2.00E+07

  • -

    4.00E+07

Non FR

CO2 Fossil

P-FR

Br-FR

Furniture prod Repl Prod Landfill Incineration Heat Recovery FR production fire Total

kg/million sofas 6.00E+05 5.00E+05 4.00E+05 3.00E+05 2.00E+05 1.00E+05 0.00E+00

  • -

    1.00E+05

Non FR

P-FR

CO

Br-FR

Furniture prod Repl Prod Landfill Incineration Heat Recovery FR production fire Total

Fossil CO2 emissions for 1 million sofas over their 10 year life cycle.

Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions for 1 million sofas over their 10 year life cycle.

Carbon monoxide emissions (CO) on the other hand are slightly lower over the whole furniture life cycle (including accidental fires) for flame retardant furniture: the higher emissions result from the increased number of accidental fires. This is shown in the figure above.

HCN

PAH

kg/million sofas 600

500 400 300 200 100

0

Repl Prod

250

Landfill

200

Incineration

150

Heat Recovery

100

FR production

fire

50

Total

0

Furniture prod

kg/million sofas 300

Furniture prod Repl Prod Landfill Incineration Heat Recovery FR production fire Total

Non FR

P-FR

Br-FR

Non FR

P-FR

Br-FR

HCN emissions for 1 million sofas over their 10 year life cycle.

PAH emissions for 1 million sofas over their 10 year life cycle.

Both hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions are considerably higher for non-FR sofa. Both of these toxic emissions are greatly impacted by the number and gravity of fires. In the case of the FR sofas the emissions of PAH from accidental fires are roughly equivalent to those related to furniture manufacture; whereas for non-FR furniture, emissions from accidental fires dominate. For PAH, the emissions are in the order of 25 kg/million sofas/year for the non-FR furniture, compared to below 2 kg/year for the phosphorus and brominated FR furniture. The results for the PAH and HCN emissions for 1 million sofas over their full 10 year life cycle are summarised in the figure above.

Document info
Document views53
Page views53
Page last viewedFri Dec 09 10:30:32 UTC 2016
Pages16
Paragraphs403
Words6981

Comments