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Take Home Message

In cohort studies the relative risk (RR) compares rate of illness in the exposed group to rate of illness in the unexposed group.

In case-control studies the odds ratio (OR) is the odds in favor of exposure among cases compared to the odds in favor of exposure among the controls.

if RR or OR = 1, or the 95 % CI includes 1 then the result is not considered statistically significant

If RR or OR is less than 1 may mean food item is "protective“

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