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  • Japanese Tales, translated by Royall Tyler, stories 65, 105, 107, 115–7, 133, 146–9.

New York: Panthon, 1987.

  • Tales of Times Now Past: SixtyTwo Stories from a Medieval Japanese Collection,

translated by Marian Ury, stories 15, 22, 23, and 31. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

  • The Tale of the Heike, in Genji and Heike: Selections from the Tale of Genji and The

Tale of Heike, translated by Helen Craig McCullough, episodes 1.1, 1.6, 6.7, 9.12. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.

  • YOSHIDA Kenk . “Essays in Idleness,” sections 7, 25, 74, 82, 122, 137, 145, 149, 166,

189, 211. In Classical Japanese Prose, translated by Helen Craig McCullough. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.

  • MATSUO Bash : “The Narrow Road to the Deep North,” p. 117–123. In The Narrow

Road to the Deep North and Other Travel Sketches, translated by Yuasa Nobuyuki. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966.

Psychological “Realism” in Modern Japanese Literature

The first modern lecture deals with three stages of psychological “realism,” one of the prominent trends in literature from the Meiji period (1868–1912) to the present. In the texts of Meiji writer Natsume S seki, psychological “realism” appears as literary revision of the “idealized” mental struggles portrayed in traditional literature. Authors such as Shiga Naoya later reinvented psychological “realism” as a literary style, with their creation of the streamofconsciousness “Inovel.” Finally, literature after World War II initiated a new phase of psychological “realism” as social critique. Contemporary female authors, such as Takahashi Takako and Makino Eri, are notable for taking advantage of this latest incarnation of psychological “realism” to critically assess the institution of motherhood.

  • NATSUME S seki. Kokoro, translated by Edwin McClellan. Washington, D.C.: Regency

Publishing, 1957.

  • SHIGA Naoya. “For Grandmother.” p. 129–137 in The Shiga Hero, translated and

edited by William Sibley. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.

  • DAZAI Osamu. “A Sound of Hammering,” translated by Frank T. Motofuji. In Japan

Quarterly 16, no. 2 (1969): 194–202.

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