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Rate of Occurrence

Controlled research has shown that if an aversive voltage was administered to a water bowl once per second, water intake was reduced. However, when the same voltage was applied once every 10 minutes and once per day, no reduction in water intake was observed. If an aversive transient occurs only a few times per day, it is not likely to have an adverse effect on cow behavior. The more often an aversive transient occurs in areas critical to cows normal feeding, drinking or resting, the more likely it is to affect cows.

V. Conversions

1,000 ms (milliseconds) 1,000,000 µs (microseconds) 1,000,000,000 ns (nanoseconds) 1,000,000,000,000 ps (picoseconds)

1V=

0.001 s (seconds) 1,000 µs (microseconds) 1,000,000 ns (nanoseconds) 1,000,000,000 ps (picoseconds)

1 mV =

1s=

1 ms =

1,000 mV 1,000,000 µV 1,000,000,000 nV 1,000,000,000,000 pV

0.001 V 1,000 µV 1,000,000 nV 1,000,000,000 pV

1 µs =

0.000001 s (seconds) 0.001 ms (microseconds) 1,000 ns (nanoseconds) 1,000,000 ps (picoseconds)

1 µV =

0.000001 V 0.001 mV 1,000 nV 1,000,000 pV

Phase Duration

    • 0.0083

      s

    • 8.3

      ms

8,333 µs 1.0 s 1.0 ms 1.0 µs 1.0 ns

    • 0.05

      s = 50 ms

    • 0.5

      ms = 500 µs

    • 0.5

      µs = 500 ns

Frequency 60 Hz 60 Hz 60 Hz 0.5 Hz 500 Hz 500,000 Hz = 500 kHz 500,000,000 Hz = 500 MHz 10 Hz 1,000 Hz = 1 kHz 1,000,000 = 1 MHz

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