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Mechanical overload and skeletal muscle fiber hyperplasia: a meta-analysis - page 3 / 6

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Alway (1) Alway (2) Alway (3) Alway et al. (4) Alway et al. (5) Antonio and Gonyea (6) Antonio and Gonyea (7) Antonio and Goynea (9) Gollnick et al. (15)

Chronic stretch Chronic stretch Chronic stretch Chronic stretch Chronic stretch Intermittent stretch Intermittent stretch Intermittent stretch Chronic stretch

Quail Quail Quail Quail Quail Quail Quail Quail Chicken

ALD ALD ALD ALD ALD ALD ALD ALD ALD

NAD Histo Histo NAD NAD and Hist Histo Histo Histo NAD

Gollnick et al. (16)

Ablation

Rat

Soleus, plantaris, and EDL

NAD

Gonyea (17) Gonyea (18) Gonyea et al. (19) Ho et al. (21) Tamaki et al. (28) Timson et al. (30) Vaughan and Goldspink (31)

Weights Weights Weights Weights Sprints/weights Ablation Tenotomy

Cat Cat Cat Rat Rat Mice Mice

FCR FCR FCR AL Plantaris Soleus Soleus

Histo Histo NAD Histo NAD NAD Histo

ALD, anterior latissimus dorsi; EDL, extensor digitorum longus; FCR, flexor carpi radialis; AL, adductor longus; Histo, histological cross sections; NAD, nitric acid digestion.

OVERLOAD AND HYPERPLASIA

Table 1. Study characteristics

Reference

Overload

Subject

Muscle

Technique

1585

weighting procedures were employed. Graphic analysis (Tukey box plots) were used to identify outliers. Individual outliers were then examined to justify whether there was any physi- ological justification for their removal from the analysis. Assessment of publication bias (the tendency for journals to

publish studies that yield positive results) was not performed because the current statistical procedures addressing this issue lack validity (26).

Differences between changes in muscle fiber number and fiber area were examined by using a Mann-Whitney rank-

No. of Subjects

Treatment

Control

Difference

Change, %

5 15 12 10 9 8 8 8 9 9 12 7 5 5 6 5 5 6 6 12 11 15 5 11 10 4 5 6 6 4 15 8 8 18 24 24 24

1,653 6 239 1,764 6 221 1,766 6 343 1,251 6 328 1,247 6 315 1,240 6 253 1,247 6 335 1,283 6 228 1,305 6 304 1,462 6 136 1,945 6 419 1,626 6 188

1,278 6 145 1,208 6 128 1,189 6 270 1,200 6 367 1,143 6 304 1,154 6 148 1,084 6 202 1,024 6 176 999 6 167 1,174 6 102 1,281 6 287 1,652 6 251

375 556 577 51 104 86 162 258 306 287 664 226

29 46 48 4 9 7 15 25 31 24 52 21 210 0 2 31 82 28 29 24 21 20.4 0.6 0.1 0.3 20.4 19 9 20 3 12 14 3 0.5 2 24 32

1,500 6 148 1,803 6 279 4,216 6 575 2,914 6 192 10,526 6 1,359 5,224 6 273 2,914 6 282 11,521 6 715 5,232 6 58 9,081 6 1,027 39,759 6 NR 9,055 6 1,029 7,817 6 810 2,477 6 424 12,559 6 269 11,349 6 327 958 6 92 784 6 220 933 6 188 990 6 144

1,631 6 286 1,398 6 210 4,116 6 821 2,942 6 192 10,564 6 1,139 5,192 6 74 2,910 6 268 11,481 6 721 5,254 6 102 7,609 6 918 36,550 6 NR 7,522 6 570 7,556 6 854 2,204 6 530 11,030 6 304 11,030 6 304 953 6 85 798 6 82 752 6 92 749 6 193

2131 405 100 228 238 32 4 40 222 1,472 3,209 1,533 261 273 1,529 319 5 214 1,881 241

Table 2. Changes in muscle fiber number for individual studies

Reference

Alway (1) Alway (2) Alway (3) Alway et al. (4)

Alway et al. (5) Antonio and Gonyea (6) Antonio and Gonyea (7)

Antonio and Gonyea (9)

Gollnick et al. (15) Gollnick et al. (16)

Gonyea (17) Gonyea (18) Gonyea et al. (19)

Ho et al. (21) Tamaki et al. (28)

Timson et al. (30)

Vaughan and Goldspink (31)

Values for treatment and control are means 6 SD. NR, not recorded.

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