# Table 3A. Benchmarking Simplified Methods for Measuring General Deterrence: A Quantitative Analysis of BOD Water Pollution Non-Compliance in the Pulp and Paper Industry

Logit with Fixed

Logit with Random

Logit with Conditional

Effects

Effects

Random Effects

-0.487** (-2.20) -0.494 (-1.37)

-0.514*** (-2.34) -.246 (-0.69)

-0.490** (-2.22) -0.490 (-1.35)

Yes Yes No Yes

Yes Yes Yes No

Yes Yes Yes No

# Variable Description

# Fines 1-12 months ago on

another plant in same state Fines 1-12 months ago on

this plant

Season Indicator Variables Year Indicator Variables State Indicator Variables Facility-Specific Fixed Effects

NOTES: Observations are by plant and month. The dependent variable is the 0/1 non-compliance status with BOD limits this month. Non-compliance (“1”) occurs if the facility exceeds its BOD average quantity limit this period. The key explanatory variables is a 0/1 fine indicator variable. This variable equals 1 if another facility in this industry in the same state received a fine in the last year. For comparability with the existing literature, reported coefficients on the key explanatory variables are coefficients (not marginal effects). A superscript * indicates statistical significance at the 10% significance level. ** indicates statistical significance at the 5% significance level. *** indicates statistical significance at the 1% significance level.

Fines 1-12 months ago on

0.232

0.140

0.213

another plant in same state

(0.88)

(0.54)

(0.81)

Fines 1-12 months ago on

-0.319

0.027

-0.305

this plant

(-0.70)

(0.06)

(-0.67)

Table 3B. Benchmarking Simplified Methods for Measuring General Deterrence: A Quantitative Analysis of TSS Water Pollution Non-Compliance in the Pulp and Paper Industry

Yes Yes Yes No

Logit with Fixed

Logit with Random

Logit with Conditional

Effects

Effects

Random Effects

Yes Yes Yes No

Variable Description

Season Indicator Variables Year Indicator Variables State Indicator Variables Facility-Specific Fixed Effects

Yes Yes No Yes

NOTES: Observations are by plant and month. The dependent variable is the 0/1 non-compliance status with TSS limits this month. Non-compliance (“1”) occurs if the facility exceeds its TSS average quantity limit this period. The key explanatory variables is a 0/1 fine indicator variable. This variable equals 1 if another facility in this industry in the same state received a fine in the last year. For comparability with the existing literature, reported coefficients on the key explanatory variables are coefficients (not marginal effects). A superscript * indicates statistical significance at the 10% significance level. ** indicates statistical significance at the 5% significance level. *** indicates statistical significance at the 1% significance level.

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